Sunday, September 14, 2014

Government Intervention 3 - Price Ceilings

Price Controls - Price Ceilings 

Conversations welcome - 

Price Controls - refer to the setting above or below the market equilibrium (binding) by the                                   government. Price controls result in shortages and surpluses.

mjmfoodie video - Price floors and ceilings - 

Price Ceilings

Price Ceiling (max price), refers to the setting of the price lower than the market equilibrium by the government and no seller is allowed to sell the goods at a higher price than the maximum price.

Remember -  (Ceilings are low)

Ceilings are meant to help the consumers,,, with lower prices. Remember, the lower prices mean that quantity demand will increase, but from the producers standpoint lower prices are a incentive to supply less. So with a high quantity demanded and low quantity supplied we naturally have shortages.

Reasons for Price Ceilings:
  • To protect (help Buyers so that lower income households can afford the good or service. Ex. food price controls and rent controls.
  • to lower the price of goods that the government deems unreasonably high.
Impacts of Price Ceilings:

1.     Non-Price rationing emerges - When a price ceiling is imposed, Qd exceeds Qs. Shortages           occur. Therefore, sellers have to ration the goods using non-price rationing mechanisms,             such as lines, first-come, first-served, nepotism (favors,  me and mine first).
2.     Underground Parallel Markets (Black Markets) - Those who cannot obtain the goods                   desired on the regular market may seek to buy the goods at higher prices at the black                 market. As the black market is unregulated and unlicensed, the purchasing of goods                   services may pose a health and safety risk.

3.      Falling Quality of Goods - As producers are not allowed to sell goods at a price higher                  than the maximum price. they may try to lower the production costs to increase profit or            cover costs. The quality of goods may be reduced.

4.    Consumers might gain or looseConsumers who are able to buy at the lower price of                  course are the winners. Since price ceilings notoriously cause shortages, some (those who            show up late) find that the supply has all been bought and so they loose.

 5.     Loss in Social Welfare - The distortion in people being able to purchase or sell goods                    goods reduces producer and consumer surplus by the shaded (DWL = Dead Weight Loss)          amount in the picture below.

Ok let's get to the Problems -

2005 AP Microeconomics Exam

Answer (C) There will be a shortage. 

Reffonomics - Practice makes perfect -

Welker - Price floors and ceilings  - always watch Welker!!
Determining the Effects of Price Ceilings and Price Floors

Milton Friedman on Price Controls

Podcast - Mike Munger - Price Gouging

Mike Munger Article - Price Gouging

Venezuelans snap up cheap electronic goods after government forces stores to lower prices - Video

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